Topic outline


    1.1 - ЯAPKOUR and youth values. Resilience and self-esteem.

    Both Rap and Parkour offer interesting material for the design of pedagogical programs aimed at developing resilience and improving the urban environment of young people, with the general aim of inducing healthy life changes within these populations.

    This is an opportunity to work with an integrated approach as it directly influences the overall social and personal development of young people.

    As far as resilience is concerned, the ЯAPKOUR programme offers complementary contributions to the development of healthy lifestyles:

    • On a physical level, Parkour offers a comprehensive training method that includes strength development, aerobics, and motor control;
    • Psychologically, if Parkour aims to push the practitioner out of their comfort zone by achieving various goals, it has an impact on the commitment and motivation of the individual, so as to increase self-esteem. In addition, creativity allows the individual to make ideas more flexible and adaptable to new situations that require a change of perspective;
    • Rap allows emotional expression through music, which helps manage fears and reduce anxiety of youth-related problems;
    • Both develop constancy to achieve their goals through work and perseverance by putting together artistic and physical performances. They are an excellent way to learn to take pleasure from your efforts;
    • Both optimally develop group awareness, cooperation and peer support, which is a key aspect of resilience through emotional support, awareness and empathy;
    • Both offer the opportunity to build group identities based on healthy and respectful values as alternatives to those associated with criminal or transgressive behaviour;
    • Both encourage positive leadership in both boys and girls in order to develop healthy educational synergies in their reference communities, helping others in difficult situations;
    • They encourage sociality through alternative recreational activities, leading to healthier, more responsible and caring behaviours among peers;
    • They give strength to groups which, because of their specific characteristics, have little social voice, which has implications for the re-evaluation of stigmatised stages of life that require attention;
    • In general, they encourage independent and creative thinking in order to develop problem solving, since, in Rap as in Parkour, the design of new paths is at the centre of the practice, both through the conception of lyrics and music and through physical movement.

    Together, these two disciplines help young people develop their skills, face situations where they need to improve, and rely on themselves and others.

    In addition, they increase emotional management skills, helping the individual learn to manage general negativity: anxiety, nervousness, stress, fear, insecurity, etc. Through practice, experience turns into self-confidence.

    In addition to resilience skills and emotional management, Rap and Parkour can teach professional skills through Rap and Parkour-related projects: rappers can specialize in audiovisual professions (sound engineer, videographer, etc.),  while traceurs can pursue careers as qualified fitness instructors or urban planners. Learning to build projects related to their passions could also help young people improve their leadership and management skills.

    Therefore, through these two activities, practicioners can become artists and professionals in different sectors, while they learn the tools of image and video, physical preparation, urban planning, etc. In addition, with the latest technological advances and increased accessibility to digital cameras, making video clips is now part of rap and parkour culture.



    1.2 - ЯAPKOUR as a means of social transformation.

    Rap and Parkour (or ЯAPKOUR) are great tools for improving the lifestyles of young people in need.

    It helps them to enjoy the surrounding space and discover how a place once associated even with hatred, a prison for one's body and mind, can be loved as it is and made better through actions. More generally, it helps them to be involved in society and to be recognised by it; it allows them to model it as they wish.

    It also makes them part of a community of people who share similar values and interests. It is an opportunity to work in unison towards a common goal and to show oneself and others that they are worth more.

    Moreover, they learn about limits: whether they are legal limits, respect for others or even for themselves: what is possible? Can I go further without hurting myself or others? Can I practice or formulate things differently in order to push myself to the limits? Or do I just have to respect these limits?

    The educational proposal is linked to the objectives and contents of the project, establishing its bases around three thematic axes of work: Rap, Parkour and emotional resilience. Therefore, activities have been proposed to cover each theme.

    In addition, at the end of this section, a part will be dedicated to the reflection activities related to the training of participants as future guides or instructors of ЯAPKOUR, so that all the experience gained becomes an opportunity to reach young people.

    All this is to be addressed from a collective and more local perspective, therefore dynamic activities aimed at knowing and consolidating the group have been included in the program, as well as a reflection on today's youth, healthy lifestyles and social and cultural environments as well as other transversal themes that are interesting to develop the capacity for critical analysis, which characterizes rap.


      2.1 - General and specific objectives.

      The project is designed in relation to the following general objectives:

      • Offer an alternative to occupy the free time and training of young people who can thus develop resilience, social relationships, reflexive attitudes, personal motivation and self-esteem;
      • To offer participants the opportunity to be references for social change in their environment through learning the ЯAPKOUR methodology.
      • The specific objectives for which the project was designed are as follows:
      • Learn the roots and social function of Rap and Parkour for their knowledge and management of terminology;
      • Know the methodological bases of both disciplines in order to practice them with other young people;
      • Learn exercises, at different levels of difficulty, to design a method of pedagogical intervention;
      • Know what resilience is, its psycho-educational foundations and learn the basic skills to include it in ЯAPKOUR-based projects;
      • To know and experience best practices for the emotional transformation of young people in situations of social vulnerability;
      • Develop a critical attitude towards situations of social or cultural injustice through reflexive positioning.



      2.2 - Specific and transversal content.

      The content of the project is linked to the following lines of work that will be specified both in the methodology and in the proposal of activities in its different routes:

      A) Rap.

      • Origin, history and current situation.
      • Musical bases and basic concepts of composition.
      • Learning exercises.
      • Final composition, music and lyrics.
      • Methodology and pedagogical objectives in teaching it.

      B) Parkour.

      • Origin, history and current situation.
      • Exercises for your learning.
      • Methodology and pedagogical objectives in teaching it.

      C) Emotional skills and resilience.

      • What is resilience, its features, and content.
      • Types of emotional abilities.
      • Theory on the development of emotional skills through Parkour.
      • Basic exercises for the development of resilience through the ЯAPKOUR methodology.
      • Pedagogical objectives of resilience development.

      D) ЯAPKOUR Facilitators.

      • The skills of the facilitators of ЯAPKOUR.
      • The design of an ЯAPKOUR program from a pedagogical approach.
      • The evaluation of the programmes and their analysis for improvement.

      Characteristics of young people in vulnerable situations.


        The methodology of the project is eminently participatory. It proposes the participants as active agents throughout the process so that they, with the advice of trainers, will generate the knowledge acquired in the contents. Having such a perspective leads to the creation of enriching synergy, taking into account the importance of the group in these crucial phases of a youth’s evolution. Therefore, even if individual reflection activities are carried out, most of the proposals and their evaluations will be carried out with and for the group.

        The learning base will have a constructive perspective, in which participants will bring new information and reflections based on those acquired during training. The goal is that they understand the personal and collective meaning of ЯAPKOUR in order to integrate it and give it a new meaning adapted to their social reality.

        Based on experience and practice, the methodology is also based on Ausbel's concept of meaningful learning (2002), so the following model is established in the idea that new knowledge is integrated with prior knowledge, connecting with each other and generating new approaches. Therefore, we want to start from the person themself and his/her skills and experiences in order to integrate new knowledge through ЯAPKOUR.

        Finally, the importance of the learning model based on action projects - defined by the Latin American Centre for Learning and Solidarity Services - has been mentioned as a solidarity service aimed at responding to the real and perceived needs of a community, actively involving participants throughout the project from planning to evaluation and intentionally linking to the learning content (programmes or training content, reflection, development of skills for citizenship and work, research).

        These pillars will form the basis of all activities, cross-referencing elements of each to ensure optimal learning.


          In line with tasks, the content has been structured as follows:

             A. RAP: Introduction and learning activities

             B. PARKOUR: Introduction and learning activities

             C. Activities that both combine RAP and PARKOUR

          At the transversal level, the themes have been linked to activities in such a way that the focus is on globalisation, in order to link Rap to activities related to social criticism or the concept of youth and to link Parkour to activities related to body care or self-image.

          A - RAP: sharing, self-expression and cultural exchange (download here  Activity A01 - A12).

          • Activity A01 - My name in Rap;
          • Activity A02 - History of Rap;
          • Activity A03 - Rap in the Mirror;
          • Activity A04 - How they see me;
          • Activity A05 - Rap as a social movement all over the world;
          • Activity A06 - Rap as a social movement;
          • Activity A07 - The Rap of alternatives;
          • Activity A08 - Multicultural analysis of Rap;
          • Activity A09 - Poetry of human rights;
          • Activity A10 - Four quarters;
          • Activity A11 - Face to face with the mirror;
          • Activity A12 - The Rap of sharing;



          B - PARKOUR: learning, sharing and team building

          Knowing the discipline and team building (download here  Activity B01 - B06).

          • Activity B01 - History of Parkour;
          • Activity B02 - Presentation activities;
          • Activity B03 - Greetings on the move;
          • Activity B04 - Learn the basics of Parkour;
          • Activity B05 - Application: a run or a "caterpillar" of movements;
          • Activity B06 - Transmit knowledge;

          Comparison and cooperation (download here  Activity B07 - B09).

          • Activity B07 - Daredevil Parkour // Knowing how to communicate // The blind and the guide;
          • Activity B08 - Knowing how to turn words into ideas to communicate effectively: the explorer;
          • Activity B09 - Parkour bulldog;

          Knowledge of the environment (download here  Activity B10 - B12).

          • Activity B10 - Residential areas, squares: anticipating patterns of coexistence;
          • Activity B11 - Interactions and conflicts in the public space: role-playing games;
          • Activity B12 - Open practice and cooperation;

          Self-knowledge and limits (download here  Activity B13 - B16).

          • Activity B13 - Knowledge of one's limits;
          • Activity B14 - Group debate: overcoming the limits;
          • Activity B15 - Revenge of the Jump;
          • Activity B16 - Stick challenge;

          Equality, inclusion, respect and social justice (download here  Activity B17 - B19).

          • Activity B17 - Debate on practice and its principles;
          • Activity B18 - The fence of others;
          • Activity B19 - Collection tools;

          Leisure and professions: a project around Parkour (download here  Activity B20 - B22).


          1. Learn about the passions and hobbies of the participants;
          2. Offer alternative activities if they do not correspond to the fundamental values of coexistence and respect for spaces;
          3. Find public spaces that can accommodate these activities;
          4. Suggest the development of certain activities to local public authorities.

          • Activity B20 - The development of a Parkour project;
          • Activity B21 - Distribution of tasks;
          • Activity B22 - Realisation of the Project;

          Future prospects (download here Activity B23 - B24).


          1. Design a life course that stimulates participants on a personal, social, educational and family level;
          2. Make personal adjustments using specific mechanisms, to maintain goals and avoid abandonment.

          • Activity B23 - Career examples;
          • Activity B24 - Professional career project;


          C - Rap and Parkour: combined exercises (download here  Activity C1 - C08).

          • Activity C01 - Clip Parkour on a rap song;
          • Activity C02 - Youtube face to face;
          • Activity C03 - Parkour and Rap, obstacles and life;
          • Activity C04 – Parkour pace;
          • Activity C05 - Need for space;
          • Activity C06 - Emotions in motion;
          • Activity C07 - Rap is Parkour, and vice versa;
          • Activity C08 - Feedback on the "ЯAPKOUR "experience.


            This is a programme proposal which takes account of content and not of temporality. That is, there is no limited time for each of the stages since this program can be performed in a week of intensive and/or residential work or over a longer period of time. The criterion used to organise the training is related to the content that is considered important in its development and the progression of the group that is adaptable to age, profiles and available time. Activities may vary, being adaptable to the objectives pursued in each training. How it is put into practice will depend on the tools that trainers will have to apply as well as on the resources available, since not all communities have a training room or recording studio. The project will therefore have to be adapted to the resources available.

            At the end of the guide, bibliographical guidance, web pages and mobile applications will be provided to learn further activities and find working tools related to this project’s curriculum. That is why we attach more importance to understanding a method than giving a simple list of seminars.


            As mentioned throughout the project, there is a possibility that, after the program, there are young people who want to be ЯAPKOUR animators to work as referents with other young people. For this reason it is essential to carry out phase 8 where the skills, capabilities and characteristics of the project are specified for its future implementation.

            As a result, the characteristics that an ЯAPKOUR animator must have for the performance of his functions are listed here, dividing them into knowledge and skills.


            A) Knowledge:

            • Historical and current basics in Rap and Parkour, as well as a basic knowledge of their respective values.
            • Have a good knowledge of the musical basis (composition, realization and recording) of rap, as well as the physical preparation of Parkour (warm-up, core training, cool-down).
            • Knowledge of the lessons Rap and Parkour can teach in everyday life.
            • Know how to design Parkour routes, both indoor and outdoor, depending on the characteristics of the group and the environment.
            • Know referents in the area to perform synergies and collaborations.
            • Know and manage group dynamics for each stage of the process: group knowledge, monitoring, motivation, conflict management and evaluation.
            • Have contacts with public or private subjects for collaboration in the project.
            • Know the environment and its sociocultural characteristics.
            • Knowledge of emotions and ability to design or research dynamics for their development with young people.



            B) Competences:

            • Ability to listen, empathy.
            • Motivation and conviction of the pedagogical bases of ЯAPKOUR.
            • Critical and responsible abilities with the environment, at the social and cultural level.
            • Leadership and management of the group.
            • Self-regulation and emotional awareness.
            • Fun and joy.
            • Ability to set limits.

            Although the training of youth workers would be part of another project because of the characteristics it implies, it is interesting to open up the possibility that, under supervision, promising young people have the opportunity to become ambassadors through their experience with progressive practice with groups. They can become leaders within their own groups and catalysts for social change through support and accompanying educational work. For this reason, it is essential that they are accompanied and guided through their learning. The relevant authorities should therefore provide guidance with quantitative indicators on what they need to improve in order to make progress.

            Special consideration relating to the teaching of physical activities.

            It should not be forgotten that Parkour is a physical activity for which teaching needs knowledge and a strong sporting background. In some countries (e.g. France), the teaching of sport legally requires an official qualification. Especially if taught to young people under the age of 18, in the event of an accident the responsibility lies with the teacher. In addition to legal considerations, keep in mind that when you teach Parkour you are responsible for your students. Having basic knowledge in first aid and emergency procedures is highly recommended, as is knowing how to warm up and how to deal with weather related problems and prepare the body accordingly (practice when it is hot or cold, etc.). Having knowledge in physical preparation is really important for parkour teaching.

            We recommend that all young people who want to become Parkour teachers contact any Parkour organizations in their respective countries.

            Educating your students with your actions, not your own words

            In Parkour and Rap, the teacher is also responsible for the image they give to their students. The teacher should be aware that the "do as I say and not as I do" rule does not apply here! Thus, beyond any talk about respect (of other people, the environment, the law, etc.), actions have the greatest consequences. So, if the teacher doesn't have an irreproachable attitude, don't expect students to have one! This also applies to video clips that everyone can see on platforms like YouTube. For example, if the teacher says "don't insult cops when they blame you" but a video of him hitting a police officer can be seen on YouTube, he loses all credibility (true story!). This statement is applicable in any domain, and particularly in disciplines such as Rap and Parkour that already suffer from a negative image in some media.


              In conclusion, ЯAPKOUR is a discipline that, because of its innovative characteristics, requires maturation and complexity when designing as an intervention program, since it is not only a matter of uniting elements of Rap and Parkour but of relating the contents in a transversal way to achieve the main goal: the development of emotional skills.

              This is why it is considered a central axis that every exercise, experience or practice, should be implemented with respect to emotional management, self-regulation and self-awareness. In addition, a responsible attitude towards the surrounding environment is mandatory. Rap and Parkour are the ways to achieve it and not the goal itself. This reflection is considered fundamental since the transformative effect of this project is in the union of both disciplines, available for the meaningful and personal development of boys and girls who need a change in their lives or simply because young people need guidance.

              Reference has already been made to the pedagogical benefits of Rap and Parkour itself, so the integration of this new perspective translates into an intervention project with optimal consequences for participants, their environment and the community.

              • 8. EVALUATION

                The evaluation proposal will depend on how the project is adapted to the working groups and their profiles. In the ЯAPKOUR approach, it is proposed to include the following qualitative and quantitative assessments:

                • Semi-structured initial and final questionnaires with open questions to evaluate basic knowledge of rap and parkour, as well as personal issues related to emotional management and perception of the work done.
                • Observation of activities and participation and involvement of participants.
                • Analysis of participants' returns in emotional management exercises to see personal and group progress.
                • Analysis of the management of conflicts that may arise during the project and their resolution.
                • Analysis of the lyrics of rap compositions, as well as their technique, as an emotional or critical expression.
                • Parkour observation, technical exercises and skills to evaluate the evolution and learning of the discipline.

                An example questionnaire template is attached for its use or adaptation.

                With all this information gathered you can have an overview of the development and purpose of the project to discern whether the proposed objectives have been achieved, being a key element of the direct experience in the collaboration with the group and the returns for the participants themselves. The aim of the evaluation is to improve those elements that do not work, to resolve situations that could reduce coexistence or communication in the group or the development and personal learning of individual participants.

                Download here Initial Evaluation and  Final Evaluation.

                • BIBLIOGRAPHY

                  AINSWORTH, B. E.; HASKELL, W. L.; LEON, A. S.; JACOBS, D. R.; MONTOYE H. J.; SALLIS J. F. and PAFFENBARGER, R. S.; 1993, Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities, Medicine Science Sports Exercice, n°25, pp 71-80.

                  ÁLVAREZ, C. Suárez; FERNÁNDEZ-RÍO, J., 2012, El Parkour como contenido educativo en Educación Primaria a través del Aprendizaje Cooperativo, 8º Congerso de acvtiidades física, Badajzo.

                  AUSUBEL, D. P., 2002, Adquisición y retención del conocimiento. Una perspectiva cognitiva, Ed. Paidós, Barcelona.

                  Centro de Psicología Santiago Cid., 2018, Definición de resiliencia: ¿Qué es y cómo ser resiliente?


                  CYRULNIK, B., 2010, La resiliencia: estado de la cuestión. La resiliencia: resistir y rehacerse, Editorial Gedisa.

                  DA-MAS, Association, 2018, Historique de l’Association DA-MAS,


                  EKELUND U; STEENE-JOHANNESSEN, J.; BROWN, W. J.; WANG, Fagerland M.; OWEN, N.; POWELL, K. E.; BAUMAN A. and LEE, I. M., 2016, Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised metaanalysis of data from more than 1 million men and women, The Lancet, 388 : 1302-1310.

                  Eurostat, 2015, Siendo joven en Europa hoy, ISBN: 978-92-79-43243-9. Fédération de Parkour, 2012, Histoire du Parkour,


                  FLEMING, John; LEDOGAR, Robert J.; 2008, Resilience, an Evolving Concept: A Review of Literature Relevant to Aboriginal Research, [Resiliencia, un concepto en evolución: revisión de la literatura relevante sobre la investigación aborigen], Visto en Wikipedia 11/02/2019.

                  GREEN, Christopher D., A Theory of Human Motivation A. H. Maslow, 1943, York University, Toronto, Ontario. Originally Published in Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.


                  KATZMARZYK et al., 2009, Citing time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, Med Sci Sports Exerc 41, 998–1005

                  L’1CONSOLABLE, Gilets Jaunes, Colère Noire, 2019,


                  MAGNON et al., 2018, Sedentary Behavior at Work and Cognitive Functioning: A Systematic Review, Front Public Heal 6, 239.

                  MARRODÁN, Gonzalo, J.L., 2019, El suicidio en la infancia y adolescencia


                  MENDIAS, R., 2016, El Aprendizaje-Servicio: Una Metodología Para La Innovación Educativa.

                  MORTAIGNE, V., 2019, Le Rap n’est pas l’enfer des femmes,


                  NACH - ЯAPKOUR, con Cres., 2008, Un Dia En Suburbia,


                  PAGNON, D., 2019, Statistiques FPK, 2019, 


                  Parkour, literally, 2015.


                  PEREA, R., 2017, La resiliencia, ¿qué es y cómo poseerla?


                  Real Academia de la lengua española, 2018, Definición Resiliencia.

                  Revista CONVIVES Revista Digital, N.16, Fundación ZERBIKAS.

                  ROMERO, Ana, 2019, 


                  SAMPAYO, D., ¿Qué es el Parkour


                  SORIANO, Leal L., 2012, Experiencia “Lusakan Parkour”: taller extraescolar en secundaria, Libro de actas del XI Congreso Internacional sobre la enseñanza de la Educación Física y el deport e escolar.

                  TREMBLAY et al., 2010, Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle, Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 725–740.


                    SOUTH PARKOUR VIDEO

                    - Esprit es-tu là, documentary translated in multiple languages:


                    - Parkour literally:


                    - Parkour toolbox by the French Parkour federation:


                    - Parkour, and life:


                    - People in Motion:


                    - The obstacle, this support:


                    - To Be & To Last:


                    - Traces blog:


                    - What is Parkour?:


                    - Why the heck would you do that?:


                    - Yamakasi founder Laurent Piemontesi in Italy, talking about the discipline:


                    SOUTH RAP VIDEOS

                    - History of Rap:


                    - How To Freestyle Rap: Complete Guide To Freestyle Rapping For Beginners:


                    - How To Start Rapping (10 Secrets You Have To Know To Begin Rapping):


                    - How To Write A Rap:


                    - Rapping, deconstructed: The best rhymers of all time:


                    - What Does Rap Mean?:


                    - What is Rap:


                    • RAP AND PARKOUR APPS



                      An application for those who have just started and do not know very well how to keep up. Record all your words and the application will turn them into a rap on a backing track. This can be created by you or you can choose an existing one in its vast repertoire. Finally, you can save your creation and voila! You're going to be a rap star.

                      Battle me

                      This app offers you a wide variety of musical bases on which you can record your lyrics - these will be recorded so that you can then listen to each of your compositions. But you can't only record your voice, the app allows you to use the camera and record your video. You can also challenge other rappers in tournaments organized by you and other users, through their votes, will be the ones who choose the winner.

                      Music Maker Jam

                      The number one application to create your own basic rhythms. Forget the whole process of creating a home studio. Learning to use this application can take some time, but in doing so, you can have a full study on your mobile phone. Save all your compositions and you can have all the bases your compositions need.


                      This app gives you 100s of different basic rhythms on which you can lay your lyrics, then share your final work with other users or with your friends. You can also listen to other people's creations and evaluate them.


                      This application is available for free for Android. Its technology is based on an artificial intelligence with which you can create your own raps while recording your voice, so you will have a recording of all your creative material. Also, when you are sure of your rhymes, you can upload them to the leaderboard and compete with other users.




                      Learn Parkour

                      In this application you will find from the basic movements of Parkour, history, training, equipment, to videos at a more advanced level, with which you can start and practice your techniques from your mobile phone.

                      Parkour Go

                      Game to practice parkour in three dimensions.

                      Parkour training

                      It is a necessary application to learn and improve the techniques necessary for the development of this urban sport. You will find tutorials to prepare your body for this challenging and fun sport and great videos of parkour practice so you can learn from them or just enjoy watching them. The app is intended for the whole public, both for those who want to start in the world of the park and for those who want to perfect their exercises.

                      Sky dancer

                      It is a game for PC or mobile devices with a proposal with elegant and simple graphics and a deal that makes you a traceur. These athletes are those who practice a very contemporary sport, the Parkour.

                      URBN Jumpers - Parkour, Freerunning and ADD

                      Apps to create circuits, contact other athletes, learn about your city's circuits and create new ones.

                      • MORE LINKOGRAPHY